The concept behind hypothesis testing is that assuming the null hypothesis is true, what is the probability of getting the sample results. If the probability is very low such as 5%, we reject the null hypothesis as the sample results is unlikely to occur due to random chance when assuming the null hypothesis is true. In H2 math, the test statistic is often based on normal or T distribution. However, the same principle can be applied for other distributions.
Example from RI Tutorial Section C (Challenging Questions)